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Here are some things to watch out for:
New York City Police Officers check subway cars at Columbus Circle on Friday, Oct. 7, 2005. Security in the city’s mass transit system has been increased following yesterday’s announcement of a specific terrorist threat to the subway system. (AP Photo/John Smock)
(L-R) New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, New York City Schools Chancellor Joel Klein and Deputy Mayor for Education Denis Wolcott at PS 40 in Brooklyn on Thursday, Sept. 22, 2005, announce the highest scores for New York City public school 4th graders on state math exams since standards-based testing began four years ago.
Musician Phil Stewart uses software by Ejamming Inc. to play online with musicians (pictured on the screen) in other parts of New York City at the DigitalLife Expo on Friday, Oct. 14, 2005. The three-day DigitalLIfe Expo features cutting-edge technology for work, home and play. (AP Photo/John Smock)
The industries professional and ethical standards for photography apply to images submitted at the Graduate School of Journalism.
Below are summaries of the ethical standard s for both the National Press Photographers Association (www.nppa.org/professional_development/business_practices/digitalethics) and the Associated Press (www.ap.org/newsvalues) .
NATIONAL PRESS PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATION
As journalists we believe the guiding principle of our profession is accuracy; therefore, we believe it is wrong to alter the content of a photograph in any way that deceives the public.
As photojournalists, we have the responsibility to document society and to preserve its images as a matter of historical record. It is clear that the emerging electronic technologies provide new challenges to the integrity of photographic images … in light of this, we the National Press Photographers Association, reaffirm the basis of our ethics: Accurate representation is the benchmark of our profession. We believe photojournalistic guidelines for fair and accurate reporting should be the criteria for judging what may be done electronically to a photograph. Altering the editorial content … is a breach of the ethical standards recognized by the NPPA.
The content of a photograph must not be altered in PhotoShop or by any other means. No element should be digitally added to or subtracted from any photograph. The faces or identities of individuals must not be obscured by PhotoShop or any other editing tool. Only retouching or the use of the cloning tool to eliminate dust and scratches are acceptable.
Minor adjustments in PhotoShop are acceptable. These include cropping, dodging and burning, conversion into grayscale, and normal toning and color adjustments that should be limited to those minimally necessary for clear and accurate reproduction (analogous to the burning and dodging often used in darkroom processing of images) and that restore the authentic nature of the photograph. Changes in density, contrast, color and saturation levels that substantially alter the original scene are not acceptable. Backgrounds should not be digitally blurred or eliminated by burning down or by aggressive toning.
When an employee has questions about the use of such methods or the AP’s
requirements and limitations on photo editing, he or she should contact a senior photo editor prior to the transmission of any image.